The strategic components of Area-based development in the Smart Cities Mission are city improvement (retrofitting), city renewal (redevelopment) and city extension (greenfield development) plus a Pan-city initiative in which smart solutions are applied covering larger parts of the city.
- Area Based Development:
- Develop areas step-by-step or Area Based Development: It is considered to be an innovative approach enabling a breakthrough in sustainable growth.
- The purpose of the Smart Cities Projects is to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people by enabling local area development and harnessing technology, especially technology that leads to Smart outcomes. Area- based development will transform existing areas (retrofit and redevelop), including slums, into better-planned ones, thereby improving the livability of the whole City. New areas (Greenfield) will be developed around cities in order to accommodate the expanding population in urban areas. Application of services. Comprehensive development in this way will improve the quality of life, create employment and enhance incomes for all, especially the poor and the disadvantaged, leading to inclusive Cities. With the help of green retrofitting of a building, both owner and tenants can attain the benefits which are either tangible or intangible benefits. It will result in a reduction in consumption of energy, utilities, and water. Maintenance, new technologies, and occupancy changes also need to be continually dealt with.
Several components of area-based development:
(a.) Holistic development of existing and new areas, (b.) One area catalyzes the development of other areas, (c.) Sets an example for other cities, (d.) The quality of life in Areas meets citizens expectations, (e.) Planned mixed land use, (f.) Housing, especially for the poor, (g.) Walkable localities,(h.) Accessibility to parks, (i.) Preservation and development of open space, (j.) Public transport, last mile connectivity, (k.) Governance is citizen friendly and cost effective.
Essential Features applicable to all three type of area based developments:
(a.) Adequate water supply including waste water recycling and storm water reuse. (b.) Assured electricity supply – least 10% of the energy requirement coming from solar power, (c.) Sanitation, including solid waste management, (d.) Efficient urban mobility and public transport, (e.) Affordable Housing, especially for poor, (f.) Robust IT connectivity and digitalization (g.) Good Governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation (h.) Sustainable environment, (i.) Ensuring safety of citizens, especially women and elderly, and (j.) Health and education. Additionally, for greenfield areas (k.) 80% buildings would be energy efficient green building, (l.) 15% of the building will be in the affordable housing category.
Main characteristics of the Area Based Development:
(a.)area-specific (versus country) (b.) Integrated (across sectors) (c.) inclusive (communities/ stakeholders) (d.) participatory (bottom-up) (e.) flexible (responsive to changes).
Below are given the descriptions of the three models of Area-based Smart City Development
|Short Definition (Types of Development & Land Extent Required)||Retrofitting is one of the strategic components which when will be introduce planning in an existing built-up area( minimum 500 acres), will help us to achieve several objectives for a smart city like making the existing area more efficient and livable along with others.||Redevelopment causes the tremendous development in infrastructure by using the mixed land use patterns over minimum 50 acres in size and also increasing the density at the same time. For e.g. Existing urban sprawl (including railway, bus stations, etc.)||Greenfield development will introduce most of the Smart Solutions in a previously vacant area( minimum 250 acres for each township) using innovative planning, plan to finance and plan implementation tools (e.g. land pooling/ land reconstitution) with provision for affordable housing, especially for the poor.|
|• Zero emission initiatives – solid and liquid discharge
connectivity CCTV surveillance in all public areas
|• Redevelopments with higher FAR and lower ground coverage to provide more green footprints within the city
• Smart measures to make the buildings green and energy-efficient
|• In addition to all redevelopment components, the following to be deliberated:
• Trade facilitation, incubation, skill development centers
|• Quality electricity and water supply through smart metering
• Installation of LED lighting, use of
intelligent traffic and parking management systems in required areas
•Development of pavements, cycle tracks, roads
|• Road widening, allocation of recreational and open spaces||• Development of base physical infrastructures such as roads, power, water supply, sewerage, waste management, etc.
• Quality infrastructure for education, health, and recreation
• Provision and integration of multi modal transport systems
|Planning Principles||Planning in an existing built-up area of a municipal ward, preparing plan with citizen participation||Replacement of existing built-up area and preparing a new layout plan with enhanced infrastructure by way of mixed land use||Introduction of smart solutions in a vacant area using innovative planning|
|Case Examples||Connaught Place in Delhi, Bhendi
Bazar in Mumbai
|Kidwai Nagar in Delhi||Land pooling/land reconstitution in
Outer Delhi, GIFT city in Gujarat
Pan- City Development
- Pan-city development envisages application of selected Smart Solutions to the existing city-wide infrastructure.Application of Smart Solutions will involve the use of technology, information and data to make infrastructure and services better.
- For example, applying Smart Solutions in the transport sector (intelligent traffic management system) and reducing average commute time or cost to citizens will have positive effects on productivity and quality of life of citizens. Another example can be waste water recycling and smart metering as a substantial contribution to better water management in the city.
- Accommodating the concerns of mayors and municipal commissioners that pan city solutions should get more weight rather than focusing more only on “area specific” and “project specific plan”, the urban development ministry has said that 50% of the central assistance to each city does not project specific. This can be used for any component of the Smart City plan including interventions that can impact large sections of the city population. The pan-city interventions are viewed more as the basic interventions that are required across the city to embark on the transformation journey. The pan-city initiative aims to upgrade the existing city-wide infrastructure through the application of smart solutions. For improving the infrastructure and services, the smart solutions would involve leveraging technology and be disseminating relevant information for helping the users in making well-informed decisions.
- A pan-city smart solution should benefit the entire city through the application of ICT and resulting improvement in local governance and delivery of public services. The SCP should contain one or two such Smart Solutions. Generally, smartness‘ refers to doing more with less, building upon existing infrastructural assets and resources and proposing resource efficient initiative.
Smart Solutions that can be implemented under Pan-City Development
(a.) Advanced home automation services based on the intelligent energy pricing and billing system, (b.) An integrated e- mobility solution based on a stationary car-sharing solution is planned, (c.) Deployment of smart street lighting (d.) Smart Traffic system to optimize traffic flows and detect incidents earlier, (e.) Environment and infrastructure sensing (f.) Virtual citizen services solution, where administrative services are provided through a high-definition, remote video kiosk. Several ICT & IOT based Smart solutions which will provide a digital platform for integrating multiple city sub- systems as per TECHNOLOGY FOR ALL- 1. Integrated City Operation and Management Centre (ICOMC) Project which comprises of Traffic Management, Parking, Bus/Para-Transit Operations, Common Fare Card, Open Data, Emergency Response and City incident Management along with seamless integration of BTCD’s utility operations requirements for centralized command and control center; 2. City Wi-Fi Project; 3.Smart Water – Meters and SCADA; 4. Smart Energy–Meters and SCADA; 5.Smart Waste Management; 6. Smart Environment Management;7. Public Internet Access Centres (PIAC); 8. Digital Literacy Initiative.
Several examples of Smart solutions are:
City Navigation System, GIS , Aadhaar Seeding, Emergency Services/ Disaster Management, CCTV Surveillance, Command Control Centre, Data Centre, e-Governance, City Asset Management System, Document Management System, Wi-fi, Optical Fibre,Traffic Management System, Buses/ Fleet Management, e-Bus, Toll Collection, e-challan, Smart Parking, Vehicle Tracking – Buses/Autos/e-rickshaws, Passenger Information System, Common Smart Card/ Fare Collection System, Road Signage, Air Pollution Monitoring, Solid Waste Management, SCADA – Power, Solar Farm/ Solar City, Street Lighting, Solar Panels, Digital Employment Exchanges , Incubation Centres, Telemedicines & Kiosks, Centralised command and control centre, Transit operations system (maintenance and tracking), Smart parking system, Common card (payment and operations), Area based traffic control, leak identification system (SCADA/ and AMR), Platform for citizen engagement and all citizen services; city dash board, Traffic mobile app, Smart metering (water), CCTV surveillance, Emergency response, Public Information system, Public transit and traffic operations and mangement centre, GPS tracking and optimisation of routes of garbage trucks, Wifi- IT connectivity, NMT infrastructure, Traffic analysis or roads and video survielance inside bus using CCTV surviellance, Mobile app based SWM and cleaniliness monitoring, Fleet management system, Automatic fare collection system (transport), Variable message sign boards, Optical fibre enabled communication , Smart bulk metering at WTPs, 24x 7 water supply, Grievance redressal through web, app and phone, SWM operations and management centre/ system, Smart card for all service payments, Smart Bus stops, Smart meters for electricity, Solar power capacity implementation, e-healthcare, Air quality monitoring sensors, City buses, Hydraullic information system/ flood monitoring, In-bus information system and wifi, Intelligent road asset management, ICT enabled billing and recovery department , e-challans for traffic violations, ICT and social media based 2 way communication with citizens, ERP with GIS platform for corporation, Ticket vending machines and value machines, Water accounting at community level, Street sweeping and dusting machines, Data analytics centre, Intelligent solar powered lights, Bicycle pods with PIS, Smart paving (capture energy from movement), One website, app and call centre, Pedestrian and bicycle activated signals, Supervision of waste processing facility, Smart grid and energy management , Rainwater harvesting, Smart classrooms, Virtual hospital, Weighing machines with RFIS/ NFC, GPS for geofencing garbage bins, Handheld biometric system, Kiosks (for urban services and grievnce), Junction improvement, Para-transit facility, Bus terminal, Cleaner fuels, Solar panels on bus top roof, Tourism mobile app, Bus bays, Cycle sharing Devangere, Parking management (pricing), Online system of water connections, Smart E- Rickshaw with charging station, GIS enabled revenue collection (land), Water level sensors, Intelligent shopping apps etc.
The concept of a smart city means very different things to different cities. As per the requirements of area based developments as well as the development based on available resources each and every strategy is proclaimed to be promising and playing very important role to make this world a better to live in under smart city project. Since already construction of buildings, as well as several components of the infrastructure of cities, have been already developed so retrofitting is the better smart solution in such case. Greenfield development came in to picture since the developed cities facing the problem of ecological imbalance so the requirement of greeneries in our modern developed is very important so as Greenfield development. In the case redevelopment, the human settlements and serviceable infrastructures became the requirements which are to be fulfilled by the implementation of this strategy over the underdeveloped cities throughout the world. Now talking about last but not the least one the pan city development strategy which is the backbone of the of infrastructure development in metropolitan, developed, cities with a high population as well as facing rapid urbanization cause the pan city strategy to be highly utilized as well as of great economic and social infrastructures. So all the strategies of smart cities development providing us the smarter solutions to remark the overall development of infrastructures in the smart cities project.
Author 1. “ Surya Dev Prakash is a young Indian Smart Cities Specialist, having expertise of several Management Consulting projects, 4 International Research papers in Smart Cities & have honorable mentions at several prestigious organizations for his talent & skills. You can approach him on his email id- firstname.lastname@example.org. “
Author 2. “Amanpreet kaur is a young Indian Urban Infrastructure & Environmental Planner and having expertise in various domains of Smart Cities, Infrastructure Development, Traffic & Transportation Planning, Project Planning. You can approach her on her email id- email@example.com . “