Smart Cities projects have huge potential to remark the urban development throughout the world. Several countries are actively participating in discussions, engaging citizens to provide innovative ideas as smart solutions which make life and livability of cities easier in every aspect. Meanwhile a lot of ICT (information Communication Technology) based smart solutions have been implemented or proposed in smart cities projects in areas of Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart People, Smart Education System, Smart Waste Management, Safety & Surveillance, Smart Energy Management, Smart water Management, Smart Infrastructure, Smart Energy, Smart Water Management, Smart Governance, Smart Economy, Smart mobility and several other sectors. Let’s discuss what else several ICT based smart solutions are in these sectors:
- Smart Environment: Smart energy including renewable, ICT-enabled energy grids, metering,
pollution control and monitoring, renovation of buildings and amenities, green buildings and green urban planning as well as urban services such as street lighting, waste management and water resource systems that are monitored for efficiency and to reduce pollution.
CT Solution: Smart alarms and simulation for urban flooding-A unique 3D flood forecast simulator has been developed that can link and be continuously calibrated by live data sources (from short-term weather predictions into wireless sensor networks) with a wide range of dynamically integrated models (surface, stormwater and sewer network, water quality, underground and building space models) to provide detailed, accurate forecasts of water levels, flood depths, flows, velocities and water quality parameters also in real time. Other integrated methods include LIDAR scanning (accurate street level 3D models of urban areas), measurements (weather radar, rain gauge sensors, water levels, network flows, surveillance cameras, etc.) and modern ICT technologies, such as web services and other IP-based data communication, GPS, Google Maps, and IOS-based tablet and smartphone technologies. The test site for the system was the centre of Helsinki, the capital of Finland, with many flood-prone properties both above and below ground. The risks are evaluated from the property owners’ point of view and each critical threshold is evaluated individually. The prototype raises alerts by reporting targeted information on flood events to key building security personnel, rescue services, local control room operators, etc. The system reports exact locations in the target area that are, or will be, in a critical situation now or in the coming minutes or hours (10 min, 30 min, 1 hour, 2 hours, etc.). The system also gives other flood-related information, such as emergency procedure recommendations.
Digital signage: The development of ICT has enabled the real-time dispatch of information through digital signage in any place, even outdoors. Moreover, digital signage helps provide consumers with information in the required amounts and at the right moment, which was impossible with conventional outdoor signs, local information magazines or brochures. Digital signage, thus, contributes to reducing the use of paper, which in turn will lead to the reduction of environmental impact and CO2 emissions, protection of the global environment, including the conservation of natural resources and the curtailment of energy consumption.
- Smart Living & Smart People: ICT-enabled lifestyles, behaviour and consumption. Healthy and safe living in a culturally vibrant city with diverse cultural facilities and good quality housing. Linked to high levels of social cohesion and social capital. Those with e-skills, working in ICT enabled roles, having access to education and training, human resources and capacity management, within an inclusive society that improves creativity and fosters innovation. Enables people and communities to input, use, manipulate and personalize data to make decisions and to create products and services. Broadband Highways Integrated broadband highways consisting of-
ICT Solutions: Digital Identity and Financial Inclusion;
- GPS & GIS enabled Aadhar Card- Leveraging Aadhaar for Digital Identity
- Mobile as an Instrument for digital identity
- High penetration of Bank accounts in urban areas
- Financial Inclusion using JAM trinity (Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile)
- Use of Point-of-Sale (POS) for e-Payments, Leveraging ‘PayGov India’ for e-Payments;
- Smart digital Identity and electronic payments for Smart Cities;
- News headlines/security alert on roadside Vedio hoardings;
- Public Internet Access Programme – Public Wi-Fi hotspots, Enabling citizens to avail services on their own through availability of internet,
- Skill development and digital literacy.
- e-Kranti – Electronic delivery of services Education
- Free Wi-Fi in all Schools
- Tele Medicine
- Online Patient Records
- Online Medicine Supply
- Digital Identity
- Common Services Centres
- Employment Exchange
- Online vehicle registration
- Vehicle tracking
- Road & Highways Information System;
- Government digital rate card for groceries and other items
- Commercial Taxes
- e Pension
- Mobile Banking
- e Insurance
- Women & Child Care
- Crime & Criminal Tracking
- Integrated Criminal Justice
- Mobile Emergency Services e Learning Apps and Products;
- Teaching systems, Classroom redesign- interactive whiteboards.
- Smart Education
3. SMART SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:
- SAFETY & SURVEILLANCE & BASIC USAGES THESE DAYS:
- Safety and Surveillance :
- Vehicles with Video Surveillance & Video Tracking Systems
- Women / Citizen Safety using smart phones / wearable devices
- City-wide Video Surveillance Systems
- Video Surveillance for Banks, ATMs, Jewellery Stores, and Similar Establishments
- Home Safety /Smart Home f. Citizen Response Management System (CRMS).
- Mobile city guide: The service concept prototype of Mobile Augmented Reality City Guide to be designed and implemented. Augmented Reality (AR) is a technique of superimposing virtual information on top of a camera view of the real world. It can be used to deliver digital content embedded to the user’s surroundings. [1, 2] In Mobile AR City Guide users can view and create messages and photos which are connected to physical geolocations, such as location-based news articles, events and public messages from other users. The content can be looked both in camera view and in map view.
- Mobile contactless ticketing: The real emergence of NFC technology, which is now available on various mobile devices, offers opportunities in terms of deployment of mobile services for end users in urban areas. In this context, the technological developments have led to the deployment of mobile contactless solutions in the domains of transport and culture. The goal has then been to identify the main models that can be used in the management of mobile contactless ticketing systems.
- SMART ENERGY MANAGEMENT:
- Smart metering cyber security:
Smart metering of energy consumption, include:
1) Consumers’ settlement must be based on real, hourly interval-metered consumption;
2) The consumption data must be simultaneously available to all the authorized market actors; and
3) Smart metering must enable load management operations. The smart metering systems are connected to many other systems in order to make the Smart metering cyber security roll-out profitable. Beside consumption data, smart metering can furnish other systems with voltage and disruption data, remote switching and load control operations, on-line status of meter installations and operational condition and over-the-air update of meter configurations and software. As part of this totality, the Distribution System Operator (DSO) is liable for smart metering and cyber security.
6. SMART WATER MANAGEMENT:
- SMART INFRASTRUCTURE:
Bharat Net – Broadband connectivity at towns, gram panchayats and villages for delivery of services, State Wide Area Network till Blocks, NKN for academic institutions to provide high speed network backbone, QoS, security and reliability, Broadband for All Urban residents, Facilitating high-speed & efficient broadband deployment, Universal Access to Phones, Expand mobile network coverage, Mobile First: enabling e-Services through mobile, Mobile broadband: creating internet hot-spots, Faster mobile connectivity: roll out of 4G, Ensuring better Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Connectivity; Enabling m-Governance and facilitating Smart IT & Communications in Smart Cities, Wireless broadband to increase proliferation of broadband services ÿMandate Communication Infrastructure in new Urban development and buildings, Virtual Network Operators for service delivery, Post Offices become multi-services center; CCTV surveillance ; Waste Management- Categorization of bio-degradable and non-bio degradable waste, and corresponding disposal; Waste water treatment; Smart meters and management; Leakage identification; Intelligent water quality monitoring ; Internet for monitoring and controlling external devices (things, vehicles, services) and significantly reducing their unnecessary power consumption; Tapping Renewable Energy sources; Energy Efficient & Green Buildings, City Assistance tools. These ICT models and tools that are aimed complementing the Smartness of Cities: i. Urban Design models and tools ii. City Simulation iii. Capacity Building Models and tools iv. Testing and Certification.
- Mobile Augmented Reality for City Planning: Increasing understanding of architectural plans-
Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology for superimposing digital information such as computergenerated graphics on the user’s real time view of the physical real world. In land use planning, mobile AR can be used for visualizing planned 3D building models from arbitrary view points at actual locations. Increased situational awareness enabled by mobile AR allows allows for
improved communication of plans between different interest groups. In the future, we expect mobile AR to become a standard tool for city officials, residents and other stakeholders to evaluate and better understand new building plans and alternatives. Mobile AR enables people to view building plans in an easy and intuitive way, at any chosen viewpoint. Interaction with residents, land owners and other stakeholders is often a key issue in building and land use planning. Better understanding of the plans can lead not only to more democratic society, but can also have significant economic impact e.g. by means of reducing costly complaint times related to land use proposals.
- Automated Building Plan Approval-The process is related to issue of permission for construction of buildings based on specific rules and regulations. As per the relevant provisions of the State Municipality Acts, any person desirous of undertaking a construction activity (fresh construction as well as modifications to existing structures), is required to obtain prior sanction from the relevant local body before embarking on the same. According to the Ministry Of Urban Development, the building plan approval is contemplated to fast track processing and disposal of building plan permissions, standardization of building fee & other charges, automation of the technical scrutiny, and effective monitoring of file processing.The Building Plan approval process can be divided into following sub-processes:
- Approval of building proposals of various kinds and nature of the structures
- Approval of layout proposals
- Processing and placement of plans
- Calculation and collection of fees
- The process requires the following:
- Each and every detail of the plan to be mapped on GIS map
- Auto generation of Unique ID for every approved building plan
- Linking Property Tax and Utility data with Building plan ID
- Availability of Automated Checking Mechanism to map the pre-approved plan with the
- building plan applied for
- Generation of Automatic Online Provisional Building approval on self-certification as per
- Pre-approved plan
- Provision for Online Fee calculation/Payment
- Automated workflow
- Mobile augmented reality for building maintenance: Building maintenance workers have a number of locations to visit and are constantly on the move, thus their tools should support mobile work. The workers also frequently meet with new locations and unknown equipment, requiring tools to provide them with up-to-date information on site. Mobile Augmented Reality can be used to visualize alerts and operating instructions directly on the target, thus helping mobile workers with improved situational awareness and reducing the workers’ need to shift their attention from the work target to external devices or manuals. Besides BIM such as FMS (Facility Management System) to be integrated into the system. Other features that were proposed by the users included a Virtual Reality (VR) view for remote inspections. Several ideas from the first round of studies were taken into account in the final system implementation.
- SMART ENERGY: ICT for neighbourhoods’ energy management-
Efficient energy management systems in urban neighbourhoods are key elements of impact resource efficiency while maintaining people’s well-being and optimizing cities’ expenditures. This can be realized by developing an open integrated neighbourhood energy management and decision support system that integrates the building, neighbourhood and grid levels (electricity, heating, cooling) with
relevant stakeholders, affecting the energy generation, storage and consumption. In an energy positive neighbourhood, the total average yearly energy production is bigger than the energy consumption. This can be achieved through solutions based on the integration of advanced ICT, energy and automation technologies. One of the key issues is efficient integration, management and operation of energy supply and demand. Optimal use and management of local and renewable energy sources are also important. In the EEPOS system, the ICT platform works as a mediator between the different tools, the neighbourhood energy management system (NEMS) and the external services. The ICT platform interacts with the neighbourhood automation platform (based on OGEMA), which communicates with energy consumption and production systems. The main applications developed are the Energy Brokering Tool (EBT), the operation planning & performance monitoring tool and the end-user collaboration tool. The EEPOS system is being validated in two extensive field tests in Finland and Germany as well as in complementary laboratory tests in Germany and a simulation-based virtual prototype study for the Municipality of Asparrena, Spain.
- SMART GOVERNANCE: Interconnected within-city and across-city governance, including services and interactions that link and, where relevant, integrate public, private, civil and European Community organisations so the city can function efficiently and effectively as one organism.
The main enabling tool is ICT.
ICT Solutions: •e-Municipalities •e-District •Land Records •e-Procurements Facilitating Smart Governance, e-Governance and ecosystem for e-Services; delivery Smart Card based ticketing; Charging stations for electric vehicles; Pedestrian Facilities; Video Crime Monitoring.
- SMART ECONOMY: E-business and e-commerce, increased productivity, ICT-enabled and
Advanced manufacturing and delivery of services, ICT-enabled innovation, as well as new products, new services and business models. Local and global connectedness includes physical and virtual flows of goods, services and knowledge.
Big data analysis (in-memory computing): The amount of data collected and stored by companies is explosively increasing, which often remains to be productively used. Aiming to utilize such ‘big data’ for more effective business management, a technology called “in-memory computing” has been developed. This could help improve business efficiency and lead to realtime business innovations through the analysis of more than 100 million pieces of data in seconds, which is enabled by replacing hard disk processing with in-memory processing.
- SMART MOBILITY: ICT supported and integrated transport and logistics systems. Sustainable, safe and interconnected systems for trams, buses, trains, metros, cars, bicycles and pedestrians. Prioritises clean and green options. Real-time information can be accessed by the public to improve commuting efficiency, save costs and reduce CO2 emissions; Vehicle telematics, Insurance, Fleet management, Connected cars, driverless metro/cars, escalated footpaths near crowded area.
ICT Solutions: Improving safety with cooperative systems- DRIVE C2X was designed to provide
a comprehensive, Europe-wide assessment of cooperative systems through field operational tests.
The test results were part of the preparation of the roll-out of cooperative systems in Europe. The objective of the impact assessment was to provide comprehensive knowledge of the impacts of DRIVE C2X functions on different levels, ranging from driver behaviour to the transport system and society level in Europe.The tests clearly demonstrated a positive impact of DRIVE C2X. The functions primarily concerned safety, and the impacts, when found, were mostly changes in speed and its derivatives. Never-theless, there was clear proof that drivers reacted to information and warning signals provided by the cooperative function by reducing their speed in most cases.
In-Vehicle Signage (IVS) function had positive impacts on driver behaviour. In areas where special attention should be paid to vulnerable road users, drivers reduced their speed in the relevance areas of IVS for child and ‘pedestrian crossing ahead’. Changes measured in driver behaviour were interpreted in terms of traffic safety. The IVS on speed limits and Weather Warnings (WW) showed most potential to decrease fatalities. Assuming a 100% penetration rate, IVS on speed limits that provides continuous information would on average reduce fatalities by 23% and injuries by 13%. WW would lead to 6% fewer fatalities and 5% fewer injuries. From an efficiency perspective, functions such as the IVS on speed limits and Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA) indicated significant effects for both the environment and traffic efficiency.
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) add to transport infrastructures and vehicles in an effort to improve their safety, reliability, efficiency and quality. Growing number of vehicles and increasing population has led to the need for effective traffic management. An Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) integrates the transportation network with ICT (Information and Communications Technology) to improve performance, enable multi modal transport and help alleviate road accidents and optimize fuel consumption. Besides being used for road transport, ITS is also used for rail, water and air transport and navigation systems.
With the help of sensors, navigation systems, video surveillance devices, and vehicle probes, real-time data is collected. It is then analyzed and communicated to the user via dynamic sign boards, internet, mobile telephony, etc. The usage of ITS to reduce road accidents and increase safety in general is a major driving force for the market. Demand for vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure
(V2I) communication in order to enhance road safety is expected to gain momentum over the next few years. Interoperability issues in between the user and the road or control units may act as a restraint to the industry in the near future. Establishment of standardization and a unified technology is necessary for effective communication.
Parking management: Traffic congestion is caused by vehicles looking for parking; Real-time data on parking space availability & route using ICT; Reservation of parking slots using web based applications; Fee based service.
- e‐Health/ Smart Health care: ICT will also enable the application of new technologies in ways that affect health care, from diagnosis to monitoring patients, including the management of the organisations involved in these activities. This will provide citizens with considerable advantages in terms of information, and even allows the availability of alternative diagnoses and remote treatment or tele‐ Online medical services and digital records will enable many non serious patients to consult physicians from a remote location thereby saving on valuable resources.
Remote Health Monitoring System: a. Use case related to Remote Health Care Management b. Ambulance Management System c. Medical Asset Tracking d. Patient Identification.
Conclusions: Smart city initiatives will contribute $977 billion in ICT revenues by 2022, says Strategy Analytics. These initiatives will combine and leverage Internet of Things (IoT) and Information and Communications (ICT). National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) has partnered with Accenture to figure out how information and communications technologies (ICT) can be implemented in different aspects of a smart city. NASSCOM is planning to with industry experts to develop a GIS architecture framework, which will use spatial or geographical data for smart city planning, and Safe City architecture framework. This will integrate safety measures within the 100 smart cities expected to come up in India.
NASSCOM is working closely with the ministry of urban development to create a sustainable model for smart cities. “The smart cities initiative is a much needed step as it aims to broad base urban infrastructure in the country. It is imperative that the ICT application/framework is integrated across the key infrastructure and environmental pillars, especially when procured as a component of individual infrastructure pillars,” said R. Chandrashekhar, President, NASSCOM. Meanwhile strategic consulting teams of several other IT companies are also working hard to lead the smart cities projects.
Credits: Thanks to NASSCOM, VTT & other important organisations.
“ Surya Dev Prakash is an young Indian Smart Cities Specialist, having expertise of several Management Consulting projects, 4 International Research papers in Smart Cities & have honorable mentions at several prestigious organizations for his talent & skills. You can approach him on +91 8743841659 and his email id- firstname.lastname@example.org. “